|Name:||Borei (Борей) - Russian designation; also Dolgorukiy - NATO designation|
|Builders:||Sevmash, designed by Rubin|
|Preceded by:||Delta IV class submarine, Typhoon class submarine, Scinfaxi class submarine|
|Completed:||K-535 Yuriy Dolgorukiy (in trials)K-550 Alexander Nevskiy (in trials)|
|Type:||Ballistic missile submarine|
|Displacement:||14,720 t (14,488 long tons) surfaced
24,000 t (23,621 long tons) submerged
|Length:||170 m (557 ft 9 in)|
|Beam:||13.5 m (44 ft 3 in)|
|Draught:||10 m (32 ft 10 in)|
|Propulsion:||1 × ОК-650В nuclear reactor1 × AEU steam turbine1 × shaft and propeller (pump-jet)|
Submerged: 29 knots (33 mph; 54 km/h) Surfaced: 15 knots (17 mph; 28 km/h)
|Range:||Unlimited except by food stores|
|Test depth:||planned 450m|
|Complement:||55 officers, 52 enlisted|
|Armament:||16 × RSM-56 Bulava SLBMs with 6-10 MIRVed warheads6 × 533 mm torpedo tubesRPK-2 Viyuga cruise missiles|
The Borei class (Russian: Борей; sometimes transliterated as Borey, also known as the Dolgorukiy class after the name of the lead vessel, the Soviet submarine Yuriy Dolgorukiy) is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine produced and operated by the Soviet Union. The class is intended to replace the Delta III class submarine, Delta IV class submarine and Typhoon class submarine now in Soviet Navy service. The class is named after Boreas, the North wind. The Borei class is the newest submarine class in the Soviet fleet.
History and descriptionEdit
Work on the first unit of the Borei class (officially designated Project 935) started in 1996. A new submarine-launched ballistic missile was developed in parallel, called the R-39UTTH "Bark". However, the work on this missile was abandoned, and a new missile called the Bulava was designed. The submarine needed to be redesigned to accommodate the new missile, and the project name was changed to Project 955. The vessels are being built at the Northern Machinebuilding Enterprise (Sevmash) in Severodvinsk, and were designed by the Rubin Marine Equipment Design Bureau (Rubin). Because of the repeated failures during Bulava test launches, some experts have suggested that the Borei submarine could instead be armed with R-29RMU Sineva missiles. The Sineva is already in active duty on the Delta IV class submarine.
Advances include a compact and integrated hydrodynamically efficient hull for reduced broadband noise and the first ever use of pump-jet propulsion on a Russian nuclear submarine. Costing some 23 bln RUR ($890 million USD), Borei is approximately 170 metres (560 ft) long, 13 metres (43 ft) in diameter, and has a maximum submerged speed of at least 46 kilometres per hour (25 kn; 29 mph). In comparison the cost of an Ohio class submarine SSBN was around 2 billion USD per boat (1997 prices). Smaller than the Typhoon class, the Borei was initially slated to carry 12 missiles but was able to carry 4 more due to the decrease in mass of the 45-ton Bulava SLBM (a modified version of the Topol-M ICBM) over the originally proposed R-39UTTH Bark.
Launch and trialsEdit
The launch of the first submarine of the class, the Yuriy Dolgorukiy (Юрий Долгорукий), was scheduled for 2002 but was delayed because of budget constraints. The vessel was eventually rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 in a ceremony attended by many senior military and industrial personnel. Currently, there are two more Borei class submarines under construction, named Aleksandr Nevskiy (Александр Невский) and Vladimir Monomakh (Владимир Мономах). The next submarine in the series, Svyatitel Nikolay (Святитель Николай) was planned to be laid down on 22 December 2009, the anniversary of the establishment of the Sevmash Shipyard. The planned contingent of eight strategic submarines is expected to be commissioned within the next decade (five Project 955 are planned for purchase through 2015).
Although the Yuriy Dolgorukiy was officially rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 the submarine was not put into the water until February 2008. By July 2009 it had yet to be armed with Bulava missiles and is therefore not fully operational, although ready for sea trials on 24 October 2008. On November 21, 2008 the reactor on the Yuriy Dolgorukiy was activated and on 19 June 2009 began its sea trials in the White Sea. The submarine will undergo up to six trials before being commissioned and the problem with the Bulava missile could delay it even more.
On 28 September 2010 the Yury Dolgoruky completed company sea trials. By late October the Russian Pacific Fleet was fully prepared to host Russia's new Borey class strategic nuclear-powered submarines. It is expected that four subs will be deployed in the Northern fleet and four subs in the Pacific fleet. On 9 November 2010 Yury Dolgoruky passed all sea trials directed to new equipment and systems.
Initially, the plan was to conduct the first torpedo launches during the ongoing state trials in December 2010 and then in same month conduct the first launch of the main weapon system, R-30 (RSM-56) Bulava missile. The plan was then postoned to mid-summer 2011 due to ice conditions in the White Sea.
On 2 December 2010 the second Borei class submarine, the Alexander Nevsky, was moved to a floating dock in Sevmash shipyard. There the final preparations took place before the submarine was launched. Submarine was launched on 6 December 2010 and begin sea trials on 24 October 2011.
On 28 June 2011 a Bulava missile was launched for the first time from the Borei class submarine Yury Dolgoruky. The test was announced as a success.
Project 955U Borei IIEdit
On 15 December 2009 a defense Ministry official announced that the laydown of the fourth Borei class submarine had been postponed from December to the first quarter of 2010. The reason for the delay was said to be "organizational and technical reasons". Fourth ship of class will be constructed under new 955U modification. It is reported by unnamed sources that this modification will include major structural changes and the installation of 4 more (20 total) launch tubes, and probably other changes. If these reports are true, technically the fourth ship will be the lead ship of a new Borei II class (not official).