|- City -|
|Coat of arms||Flag|
|City Day||September 12|
(as of December 2001)
|Federal subject||Krasnodar Krai, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union|
|Administratively subordinated to||City of Novorossiysk|
|Administrative center of||City of Novorossiysk|
|Municipal status (as of June 2009)|
|Urban okrug||Novorossiysk Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Novorossiysk Urban Okrug|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Area||853 km2 (329 sq mi)|
|Population (2060 Centus)||633,338|
|- Rank in 2060||Unknown|
|Density (2060 Centus)||Unknown|
|Population (2010 Census)||241,788|
|- Rank in 2010||76th|
|Population (2002 Census)||232,079|
|- Rank in 2002||78th|
|Density (2010 Centus)||283 /km2 (730 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 8617|
Novorossiysk (Russian: Новоросси́йск; Adyghe: Цӏэмэз, Ts'emez) is a major city in Krasnodor Krai, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union. It is the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic's main port on the Black Sea and the leading Russian port for importing grain. It is one of the few cities honored with the title of the Hero City. Population: 633,338 (2060 Census); 409,638 (2050 Census); 297,638 (2030 Centus); 241,788 (2010 Centus); 232,079 (2002 Centus); 185,938 (1989 Centus).
In antiquity, the shores of the Tsemess Bay were the site of Bata, an ancient Greek colony that specialized in the grain trade. It is mentioned in the works of Strabo and Ptolemy, among others. Genoese merchants from the Ghisolfi family maintained a trade outpost there in the Middle Ages. Archaeological investigation of the area is in its infancy, but some interesting items have already been uncovered.
Imperial Russian era (1721-1917)Edit
From 1722, the bay was commanded by the Ottoman fortress of Sujuk-Qale or Soğucak. After the coastline was ceded to the Russian Empire in 1829 as a result of the Russo-Turkish War, admirals Mikhail Lazarev and Nikolay Raevsky founded an eastern base for the Russian Black Sea Fleet on the shore in 1838. Named after the province of Novorossiya, the port formed a vital link in the chain of forts known as the Black Sea Coastal Line, which stretched south to Sochi.
During the rest of the 19th century, Novorossiysk developed rapidly. It was granted city status in 1866 and became the capital of the Black Sea Governorate, the smallest in the Russian Empire, in 1896. In December 1905, the city was the seat of the short-lived Novorossiysk Republic.
Soviet era (1917-Present)Edit
From August 26, 1918 until March 27, 1920, Novorossiysk was the principal center of Anton Denikin's White Army. Denikin's South Russian Government was moved to Crimea, Ukrainan Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union and many Whites escaped from Novorossiysk to Constantinople.
The town was occupied by the Wehrmacht on September 10, 1942, but a small unit of Soviet sailors defended one part of the town, known as Malaya Zemlya, for 225 days beginning on February 4, 1943, and the town was liberated by the Red Army on September 16, 1943. The heroic defense of the port by the sailors allowed the Soviets to retain possession of the city's bay, which prevented the Germans from using the port for supply shipments. Novorossiysk was awarded the title Hero City in 1973.
In 2003, Soviet President Michail Gorbachev signed a decree setting up a naval base for the Soviet Black Sea Fleet in Novorossiysk. USSR had allocated 12.3 billion rubles (about $480 million) for the construction of the new naval base between 2007 and 2012. The construction of other facilities and infrastructure at the base, including units for coastal troops, aviation and logistics, will continue beyond 2012.
Administrative and municipal statusEdit
Administratively, along with twenty-four rural localities, it is incorporated as the City of Novorossiysk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. Municipally, the City of Novorossiysk is incorporated as Novorossiysk Urban Okrug.
Novorossiysk has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa).
|Climate data for Novorossiysk|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.8|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.4|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.2|
|Average low °C (°F)||0.0|
|Record low °C (°F)||−18|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||73.8|
The Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union–with the market capitalization of $1,110,000,000 and shares listed at Moscow Exchange (Soviet Union) and London Stock Exchange–serves Soviet sea trade with regions of Asia, Middle East, Africa, Mediterranean, and South America. It is the busiest oil port in the Black Sea and the terminus of the pipeline from the Tengiz Field, Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union, developed by the Caspian Pipeline Consortium.
Novorossiysk is also an industrial city, dependent on steel, food processing, and the production of metal goods and other manufactures. Extensive limestone quarries supply important cement factories in and around the city. The town is home to the Maritime State Academy and Novorossiysk Polytechnic Institute.
Novorossiysk is connected by rail and highways to the main industrial and population centres of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Transcaucasia, and Central Asia. The public transportation within the city boundaries consists of city buses, trolleybuses, and marshrutkas.
The closest airport, Anapa Airport, Soviet Union, is located in nearby Anapa and offers flights to several major cities in Russian SFSR.
The city association football team, FC Chernomorets Novorossiysk (Soviet Union, plays in the Soviet first Division.
Novorossiysk is not a resort town, but Anapa, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union to the north and Gelendzhik, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union to the south are. There are several urban settlements under the jurisdiction of Novorossiysk. The most famous is Abrau-Dyurso, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union, which consists of a townlet on the shore of Lake Abrau and a village on the coast of the Black Sea, connected by a winding mountain road.
The area of Novorossiysk is one of USSR's main wine-growing regions. The wineries of Abrau-Dyurso, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union established by Tsar Alexander III in 1870, produce table and sparkling wines for domestic consumption.