|Project 1143 "Krechyet"|
|"Novorossiysk" in 1986|
|Type||Heavy aircraft carrying cruiser/aircraft carrier|
|Preceded by||Project 10 200 Khalzan|
|Succeeded by||Project 11 780 Ivan the Tarawa and Baku class aircraft carrier|
|Shipyard||Black Sea Shipyard, Nikolayev, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union|
|Put into operation||1975-1991|
|The current status of||In service|
|Displacement||31,900 tons (standard)
45,000 tons (full)
|Width||waterline 31 m
51 m flight deck
|Draft||8 m (standard displacement)|
|Power plant||boiler-turbine unit shaft 4|
|Power||180,000 hp (Total)|
|Rate||30 knots (maximum)|
|Aviation||36 aircraft Yakovlev Yak-38, helicopters Kamov Ka-25, Kamov Ka-27.|
First laid down in 1970 the Kiev class was partially based on a design for a full-deck carrier proposed in Project 1160 Eagle. Originally the Soviet Navy wanted a supercarrier similar to the American Kitty Hawk class aircraft carrier. However, the smaller Kiev class design was chosen because it was considered to be more cost effective.
Unlike American or British carriers, the Kiev class is a combination of a cruiser and a carrier. In the Soviet Navy this class of ships was specifically designated as a heavy aviation cruiser rather than just an aircraft carrier. Although the ships were designed with an island superstructure to starboard, with a 2/3 length angled flight deck, the foredeck was taken up with the heavy missile armament. The intended mission of the Kiev class was support for strategic missile submarines, other surface ships and naval aviation; it was capable of engaging in anti-aircraft, anti-submarine and surface warfare.
A total of five Kiev class aircraft carriers were built and commissioned, now serving in the Soviet Navy.
Even before the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet Union began to develop their own full-fledged aircraft carrier with a displacement of up to 35,000 tonnes, but to build it never came. After the war, Admiral of the Fleet Nikolai Kuznetsov managed to include in the plans for the design of ships for 10 years, but projects are carriers and have not appeared. By the end of the 60s of XX century, the Soviet Union already there were two anti-submarine cruiser Project 1123 "Condor". At the same time, after showing a prototype of the Government of the Yak-36, thanks to the efforts Ustinov began designing a new anti-submarine ship to air armament. The result is a government decree on September 2, 1968 № 685-251 to stop construction on the Chernomorsky yard in Nikolayev, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union cruisers of project 1123.3, and the start of construction of the project antisubmarine cruiser 1143 "Merlin" to air armament. The objectives of the new ships were to include:
- air defense ship, and (or) a group of ships, accompanied them;
- securing strategic submarine cruisers in the areas of combat patrols;
- seek and destroy enemy submarines in the anti-group;
- detection, guidance, and the destruction of enemy surface forces;
- support amphibious assault.
At the initiative of the Nevsky PKB began study of several variants of the ship. Of the options proposed project has been selected, the maximum compatible with the vehicles of the last project in 1123, it approved April 30, 1970.
The new anti-cruiser, was built in the classic canons of air: the island was removed from the center line to the right ship, flight deck cantilever overhang had on which were placed the landing site. hangar, measuring 130 m x 22,5 m x 6,6 m Storage Wing, located under the flight deck. To lift aircraft used two samoletopodemnika.
In the bow of the ship and behind the superstructure , possess arms. On the nose and zanadstroechnoy parts were installed SAM "Storm" and a 76-mm gun mounts AK-726 , SAM melee "Osa-M" placed on the left and right sides. To defend the ship, the location of 30 mm ZAC AK-630 have circular. Impact objectives of PPH, were two of the complex "Basalt". To combat submarines were used: 2 rocket complex "Whirlwind", 2 missile-bomb setup RBU-6000 , 2 pyatitrubnyh 533 mm torpedo tubes arranged in a special lockable compartments at the board.
To solve the problems of combat, based on the ship and 36 aircraft: VTOL Yakovlev Yak-38 and helicopters Kamov Ka-25 and Kamov Ka-27 . Many problems had to be solved to ensure the wing consumable. On the ship were placed tanks for fuel and additional space for aircraft ammunition. Over time, the captain saw the futility of the southern latitudes of the deck of aircraft with vertical take-off.
A total of five ships built of this type:
- Soviet aircraft carrier Kiev (project 1143)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Minsk (project 1143,2)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Novorossiysk (project 1143,3)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Baku (Kiev class aircraft carrier) (project 1143,4)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Gorshkov (Kiev class aircraft carrier) (project 1143,5)
Also in the Project 1143 includes eight ships, which are actually further its evolution. The main difference is the possibility of take-offs and landings of the traditional scheme. To do this, the cruiser had a significantly increased flight deck (due to the release of its missile and artillery) and a springboard for take-off aircraft (the last ship of the project also had to have steam catapults).
- Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral of the Soviet Union Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Project 1143,5)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Varyag (project 1143,6)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Leonid Brezhnev (project 1143,7)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Riga (project 1143,8)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Tbilisi (project 1143,9)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Kreml (project 1144)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Ulyanovsk (Project 1143,7 Ulyanovsk)
- Soviet aircraft carrier Kremlin (Ulyanovsk class aircraft carrier) (Project 1143,7 Ulyanovsk)
- Designer: Nevskoye Planning and Design Bureau
- Builder: Nikolayev South (formerly Chernomorsky Shipyard 444)
- Power Plant: 8 turbopressurized boilers, 4 steam turbines (200,000 shp), four shafts
- Length: 273 meters overall (283 m for Baku and Admiral Gorshkov)
- Flight Deck Width: 53 meters
- Beam: 32.6 meters
- Displacement: 43,000-45,500 metric tons full load
- Speed: 32 knots (59 km/h)
- Aircraft: 26-30
- Crew: 1,200-1,600 (including air wing)
- Kiev and Minsk:
- Baku and Admiral Gorshkov:
- Date Deployed: 1975 (Kiev)
- Date Deployed: 1978 (Minsk)
- Date Deployed: 1982 (Novorossiysk)
- Date Deployed: 1987 (Baku)
- Date Deployed: 1991 (Admiral Gorshkov)