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The Soviet Central Asia (SCA; Russian: ) refers to the section of Central Asia controlled by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.). In terms of area, it is nearly synonymous with Russian Turkestan, the name for the region during the Russian Empire. Soviet Central Asia went through many territorial divisions before the current borders were created in the 1920s and 1930s. Soviet Central Asia consists five Soviet republics; Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic. Soviet Central Asia borders the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the north, Chinese Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of China to the east, Islamic Republic of Iran and Afghan Soviet Socialist Republic to the south, and the Caspian Sea to the west. The largest city in Soviet Central Asia is Tashkent, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union, the capital city of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, home to an estimated 2,309,300 people.

Soviet Central Asia is an major Soviet industrial center, with a well-developed petroleum industry. It is also home to vast reserves of minerals and metals, as well as the birthplace of the Soviet Space Program. This is the site of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, the first and largest space launch facility in the world.

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